Schools Under Siege

Schools Under Siege The Impact of Immigration Enforcement on Educational Equity

Edited by Patricia Gándara and Jongyeon Ee
paper, 248 Pages
Pub. Date: August 2021
ISBN-13: 978-1-68253-647-6
Price: $33.00

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Pub. Date: August 2021
ISBN-13: 978-1-68253-649-0

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Using original qualitative and quantitative data, Schools Under Siege confronts the many ways, direct and indirect, in which US Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) policies and practices disrupt education. The book explores not only the impact of these policies on the six-million-plus K–12 students in the US at risk for being directly affected by enforcement but also the wide-ranging consequences for their classmates, educators, and communities.


In this timely book, Patricia Gándara and Jongyeon Ee provide a series of informative studies addressing the impact of immigration policies on American public schools. In Schools Under Siege, Gándara pursues and fulfills her long-standing commitment to address the plight of underserved immigrant students and the schools that they attend. — Alejandro Portes, Professor of Law and Distinguished Scholar of Arts and Sciences, University of Miami

This book is for everyone who cares about equity. Gándara and Ee use groundbreaking survey work to show how weaponized immigration enforcement reaches far beyond our borders to harm American children and undermine our nation's schools. In Méndez vs. Westminster, the court ruled social equality is paramount to the American public school system. Eighty years later, this book is a stark reminder we have yet to achieve it. — Emily Ruskin, Senior Immigration Policy Analyst, UnidosUS

Schools Under Siege invites readers to reflect on the Trump presidency and its impact on immigrant communities and schools. Together, the chapters honor the voices and experiences of students, educators, and administrators during the Trump presidency. Collectively, this book details the reasons why we must act now to support the needs of our immigrant students, families, and communities not just to remedy the past, but to build back our future. — Teachers College Record

Regardless of individual views on immigration policy, most people would agree that the threat of detention and deportation affect student performance and the operation of schools and those who work in them. Organized into nine chapters, Schools Under Siege presents both the conceptual underpinnings of equity and practical considerations for those facing these unpleasant realities. — Choice Magazine

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About the Editors

Patricia Gándara is research professor and codirector of the Civil Rights Project at UCLA. She is also director of education for the University of California–Mexico Initiative. Gándara is a 2019 recipient of the Alfonso Garcia Robles medal, conferred by the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) for work on behalf of Mexican immigrants in the United States. She is also an elected fellow of the American Educational Research Association (AERA) and of the National Academy of Education. In 2011, she was appointed to President Obama’s Commission on Educational Excellence for Hispanics and, in 2015, received the Distinguished Career Award from the Scholars of Color Committee of the American Educational Research Association. In 2016, she gave the first AERA Centennial lecture at the Brooklyn Museum entitled, “Educating Immigrant students and English learners in an anti-immigrant era.” She has also been a fellow of the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Italy, the French-American Association at Sciences Po Graduate Institute, Paris, and an ETS fellow at Princeton, New Jersey. She has written or edited eight books and published over 150 articles, chapters, and major policy reports. She has written chapters in several Harvard Education Press edited books, including “On Nobody’s Agenda” (Sadowski, 2004); “English Learners, Immigrant Students, and the Challenge of Time” (Saunders et al., 2017); “Deeper Learning for English Language Learners” (Heller et al., 2017).

Her most recent books include The Students We Share: Preparing US and Mexican Teachers for Our Transnational Future, with Bryant Jensen (SUNY, 2021); The Bilingual Advantage: Language, Literacy, and the U.S. Labor Market, with Rebecca Callahan (Multilingual Matters, 2014); Forbidden Language, with Megan Hopkins (Teachers College Press, 2010); and The Latino Education Crisis, with Frances Contreras (Harvard University Press, 2009). Most recent published articles include “The Economic Value of Bilingualism in the United States (Bilingual Research Journal, 2018); “The Students We Share: Falling through the Cracks on Both Sides of the US-Mexican Border” (Ethnic and Racial Studies, 2019); “The Impact of Immigration Enforcement on the Nation’s Schools,” with J. Ee (American Educational Research Journal, 2019); “What Shall Be the Future for the Children of Migration?,” in Equitable Globalization, ed. E. Tellez and R. Hinojosa, University of California Press, in press; and “Betraying Our Immigrant Students” (Kappan, September 2018).

Jongyeon Ee is an assistant professor at the School of Education, Loyola Marymount University (LMU). She earned her doctorate from the UCLA Graduate School of Education and was a postdoctoral research associate at the UCLA Civil Rights Project. She has authored several research reports and book chapters on school segregation, racial inequality, and school discipline in K–12 schools, including “Harming Our Common Future: America’s Segregated Schools 65 Years after Brown,” “Segregating California’s Future: Inequality and Its Alternative 60 Years after Brown v. Board of Education,” and “Our Segregated Capital: An Increasingly Diverse City with Racially Polarized Schools.” Her recent publications have also focused on language-minority students and immigrant students and have appeared in American Educational Research Journal, Bilingual Research Journal, and International Journal of Bilingualism and Bilingual Education, including “The Impact of Immigration Enforcement on the Nation’s Schools,” “10 Employer Preferences: Do Bilingual Applicants and Employees Experience an Advantage?,” “Are Parents Satisfied with Integrated Classrooms?: Exploring Integration in Dual Language Programs,” and “Bamboo Bridges or Barriers? Exploring Advantages of Bilingualism among Asians in the US Labor Market Through the Lens of Superdiversity.” She was awarded the Outstanding Dissertation Award from the National Association for Bilingual Education and the Ascending Scholar Award form LMU.

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