Harvard Educational Review
  1. Spring 1987 Issue »

    Knowledge and Teaching

    Foundations of the New Reform

    Lee S. Shulman
    Lee S. Shulman builds his foundation for teaching reform on an idea of teaching that emphasizes comprehension and reasoning, transformation and reflection. “This emphasis is justified, “he writes, “by the resoluteness with which research and policy have so blatantly ignored those aspects of teaching in the past. “ To articulate and justify this conception, Shulman responds to four questions: What are the sources of the knowledge base for teaching? In what terms can these sources be conceptualized? What are the processes of pedagogical reasoning and action? and What are the implications for teaching policy and educational reform? The answers— informed by philosophy, psychology, and a growing body of casework based on young and experienced practitioners—go far beyond current reform assumptions and initiatives. The outcome for educational practitioners, scholars, and policymakers is a major redirection in how teaching is to be understood and teachers are to be trained and evaluated.

    This article was selected for the November 1986 special issue on “Teachers, Teaching, and Teacher Education,” but appears here because of the exigencies of publishing.

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    Spring 1987 Issue


    Knowledge and Teaching
    Foundations of the New Reform
    Lee S. Shulman
    Teaching Student Teachers to Reflect
    Kenneth M. Zeichner and Daniel P. Liston
    The Higher Education Acts Contrasted, 1965-1986
    Has Federal Policy Come of Age?
    Francis Keppel
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