Harvard Educational Review
  1. Spring 2002 Issue »

    "Not Bread Alone"

    Clandestine Schooling and Resistance in the Warsaw Ghetto during the Holocaust

    Susan M. Kardos
    In this article, Susan Kardos speaks to the importance of education by looking at the forms and purposes of clandestine schooling in the Warsaw Ghetto during the Holocaust. Building on archival evidence and survivor accounts, Kardos recreates the moving spirit and multiple endeavors of schooling that prevailed in the Ghetto. Despite horrific conditions and great danger, individuals and organizations within the Ghetto devoted themselves to ensuring that educational activities would continue. According to Kardos, schooling became a form of resistance against Nazi attempts to eradicate the Jews and their culture. She argues that schooling was oriented simultaneously to the past, present, and future: to the past by defying cultural and historical annihilation; to the present by providing a sense of normalcy that helped Jews survive their daily struggles in the Ghetto; and to the future by providing a sense of hope for the Ghetto inhabitants. Kardos unearths this heroic and inspiring historical episode to illustrate the importance of schooling as a means of survival and resistance by people who would not allow themselves to be erased. (pp. 33-66)

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  2. Spring 2002 Issue


    Eliminating Ableism in Education
    Thomas Hehir
    "Not Bread Alone"
    Clandestine Schooling and Resistance in the Warsaw Ghetto during the Holocaust
    Susan M. Kardos
    Against Repetition
    Addressing Resistance to Anti-Oppressive Change in the Practice of Learning, Teaching, Supervising, and Researching
    Kevin K. Kumashiro
    Madaz Publications
    Polyphonic Identity and Existential Literacy Transactions
    Bob Fecho with Aaron Green

    Book Notes

    The Gendered Society
    By Michael S. Kimmel

    Honored but Invisible
    By W. Norton Grubb, with Helena Worthen, Barbara Byrd, Elnora Webb, Norena Badway, Chester Case, Stanford Goto, and Jennifer Curry Villeneuve

    An Elusive Science
    By Ellen Condliffe Lagemann

    The Best for Our Children
    Edited by María de la Luz Reyes and John J. Halcón

    Holler If You Hear Me
    By Gregory Michie

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