Harvard Educational Review
  1. Fall 2010 Issue »

    From Forced Tolerance to Forced Busing

    Wartime Intercultural Education and the Rise of Black Educational Activism in Boston

    Zoë Burkholder
    In this article, Zoë Burkholder explores the historical interplay of the emergence of tolerance education in the United States and the rise of black educational activism in Boston. By uncovering a pointed lack of tolerance education in Boston and a widespread promotion of tolerance education in other cities in the early half of the twentieth century, the author reveals how racial, historical, and political factors complicated tolerance education's local implementation in Boston. Informed by local racialized politics in the 1940s, the predominantly Irish Catholic teaching force in Boston declined to teach lessons on racial tolerance that were popular nationwide during World War II. Burkholder argues that this site of active teacher resistance against tolerance education provided fertile ground for black educational activism in Boston during the civil rights movement. These findings presage the well-documented virulence of white protest to school integration in Boston and complicate our understanding of integration in today's educational context.

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    Zoë Burkholder is an assistant professor of educational foundations in the College of Education and Human Services at Montclair State University, where she studies the intersections between race, social justice activism, and public schools in twentiethcentury American history. Her research and writing have been published in the History of Education Quarterly, Teachers College Record, Anthropology News, Teaching Tolerance, and Education Week. Her forthcoming book from Oxford University Press investigates a little-known but tremendously important effort by America’s leading anthropologists to reform what they called “the ‘race’ concept” in U.S. public schools during World War II as a direct response to Nazi racism. Burkholder served as a Spencer Dissertation Fellow for Research Related to Education and a fellow at the Charles Warren Center for Studies in American History at Harvard University. She may be contacted at zoeburk@hotmail.com.
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    Fall 2010 Issue


    From Forced Tolerance to Forced Busing
    Wartime Intercultural Education and the Rise of Black Educational Activism in Boston
    Zoë Burkholder
    More Like Jazz Than Classical
    Reciprocal Interactions Among Educational Researchers and Respondents
    L. Janelle Dance, Rochelle Gutiérrez, Mary Hermes
    "No Backpacks" versus "Drugs and Murder"
    The Promise and Complexity of Youth Civic Action
    Beth C. Rubin, Brian F. Hayes
    When Boys Won't Be Boys
    Discussing Gender with Young Children
    Hannah Katch, Jane Katch
    Editor's Introduction: Bias in the SAT?
    Continuing the Debate
    HER Editorial Board
    On Replicating Ethnic Test Bias Effects
    The Santelices and Wilson Study
    Roy O. Freedle
    Misrepresentations in Unfair Treatment by Santelices and Wilson
    Neil J. Dorans
    Responding to Claims of Misrepresentation
    Maria Veronica Santelices, Mark Wilson

    Book Notes

    Whistling Vivaldi
    Claude M. Steele

    Crossing the Finish Line
    William G. Bowen, Matthew M. Chingos, and Michael S. McPherson

    Examining Effective Teacher Leadership
    Sara Ray Stoelinga and Melinda M. Mangin

    The Boy on the Beach:
    by Vivian Gussin Paley

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